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Chapter 5B: More Wine Regions



Chapter 5B: More Wine Regions

SPAIN'S WINES
Spain has more grapes planted than any other country. It is third behind Italy and France in terms of production because the soil and climate generally produce lower yields than the other countries. Spain's superb reds from Rioja (made from Tempranillo) and classic wines from Catalonia (mostly Cabernet, Tempranillo and other local varieties) can rival any country's in all fields except recognition. It is best known for the unique Sherries produced in the southwest part of the country. Easily, this is Spain's, if not the world's, most versatile wine.

Rioja           
Without question, Spain's oldest and most respected red wine. While other areas are stealing some thunder, typically Ribera del Duero and Priorat, Rioja is still the wine to beat. The area is named after the River that flows through the region, the Rio Oja. The region is basically divided between three distinct areas; the Rio Alta, the highest, the Alavesa the middle and the Baja, the lowest. Generally the finest wines come from the Alta and Alavesa, though many are a combination of the two. Most labels don't tell you where the wines come from, so, as with any wine, you have to rely on the integrity of the producer. The principle grape here is Tempranillo with support from Garnacha and occasionally Carignane.

Catalonia           
Kind of a new wave area in that it specializes in more French grapes like Cabernet, Syrah, Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer than classic Spanish ones. However, the results are normally quite impressive and often value oriented.

Priorat      
Wine books written before 2000 most likely didn't even mention Priorat as a major wine producing area. Now it can only be called a phenomenon. While it has long been known that there are many old vine vineyards here, they never reached their potential until a few visionaries began producing handcrafted offerings that became the range seemingly overnight. The grapes are a combination of Cabernet, Merlot and Tempranillo, however there is no specific law governing grape varieties in order to earn the designation on the label.

Ribera Del Duero        
For centuries, there was only one wine here, Vega Sicila. Its distinction was that it was not only the most expensive wine produced in Spain, but one of the most expensive produced in the world. The wine is mostly Cabernet with touches of Tempranillo. For years it was the only game in town. Today, there are dozens of properties here making arguably some of the finest wines in the world.


AUSTRIA'S WINES

Austria is becoming an increasingly important wine-producing country in central Europe with an annual production of about 30 million cases, 30% more than Germany. The wines themselves are fuller bodied than the Germans and generally drier. Like Germany, Austria produces primarily white wines, however their success with certain reds, particularly because of the warmer climate, is much greater than Germany’s.

The Celts were probably the first to grow grapes in Austria as early as 500 BC. Viticulture continued under the Roman Empire. After a succession of raids and domination, as was the case in most of Europe during the Dark Ages, vines began to appear and become part of the landscape by the 1300s. Under the influence of the monks, most of the plantings occurred around Krems on the Danube west of Vienna. Austria’s total area under vine was much greater than it is today. At one point foreign wine was not permitted to be sold in the country.

Austria's vines are planted on both sides of the Danube, which cuts through the country from West to East. The climate is generally drier and warmer than Germany.

Wachau
The Wachau is considered the country’s finest wine region. It is the furthest point to which the Atlantic airstreams penetrate the Danube Valley; it is the only region in Niederösterreich that benefits from its moderating effects.

Kremstal, Kamptal and Donauland
These are other fine dry white wine regions, but with some excellent reds now being made by experimental winemakers.

Weinviertel, Thermen, Steiermark and Burgenland
Reds are also produced in the Weinviertel and the Thermen region, though white grapes predominate. Steiermark produces citrusy Chardonnay, often labeled Morillon, some using oak and some without, and Sauvignon Blanc. Burgenland is one of the top red wine producing areas featuring Zweigelt at its principle grape and some fine dessert wines.

Like Germany, most of the vineyards are cared for by part-time vine-growers. It’s maze is very similar to Burgundy in that the average ownership is just over two acres.

Grüner Veltliner
Austria's most planted variety is its very own Grüner Veltliner, which accounts for more than a third of Austria's total vineyard area.


SOUTH AFRICA'S WINES

This country has had the best and worst of the wine industry.  It may have the most perfect weather and soil for growing wine grapes in the entire world. There is almost never rain at harvest, no frost, a long growing season and classic soils. That's the good part. Unfortunately, all these natural benefits were completely stifled by apartheid in the late '70s and '80s. Unfortunately for them, there was more progress in global wine technology during this period than at any time in recent memory. South Africa was isolated from the wine industry and stuck in a provincial political system. It had a big jump to make in order to compete globally in the '90s. That jump was made, however, and quite successfully at that.

South Africa's principle grape-growing districts are all huddled at the very tip on the country around the Cape of Good Hope. Grapes were planted in Constantia by Dutch traders in the 1650s for the purpose of making wine. It was the first stop for ships sailing from Australia to Europe and wine was believed to cure scurvy, a common problem for sailors at the time. From Constantia the vine spread to South Africa's best known area, Stellenbosch, just 10 miles to the east; Paarl, home of their best fortified wines; and Swartland, the fine wine capital.

In 1918 a cooperative of over 5,000 growers called the KWV was formed to limit overproduction and stabilize inventories and prices. For 70 years the KWV was all that those outside the country knew about  South African wines since there were less than 80 growers who bottled their own wine.

In less than a decade, South Africa has gone further faster than probably any winemaking nation in the world. The KWV is still the largest producer, but each year its piece of the pie is being chipped away by artisan winemakers hungry for the worldwide recognition they were denied for so long.

The most widely planted grape here is Chenin Blanc, known as Steen. It is a versatile grape making lovely, melon-scented dry and semi-dry wines as well as rich dessert wines. Pinotage, a cross between Pinot Noir and Cinsault, has become the most distinctive wine in South Africa. It's flavor profile ranges from a light and refreshing to complex, dense and spicy.

Wine of Origin (WO) legislation introduced in 1973 ended decades of a labeling free-for-all, which made it impossible for the consumer to tell what wine, came from where. The government set up a certification system, which set some order to the labeling chaos.

Swartland
The newer area of Swartland is racing to the fine wine forefront with stellar Sauvignon Blanc and many an outstanding Shiraz and Pinotage. South Africa is catching up very quickly with the rest of the world's fine wine producers. Typically, as quality and recognition rise, so do prices. South Africa is a good value right now in the fine wine arena. But, that is subject to change with increasing fame.

Stellenbosch    
Although best known for Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Shiraz, and Pinotage, Stellenbosch produces a host of wine types including port style wines and some excellent Chardonnays and Sauvignon Blancs. It is the source of only about 16 per cent of the country's total wine production although it boasts the greatest concentration of leading estates, an extensive wine route network, and scores of restaurants.

Paarl          
Paarl translates to pearl in Afrikaans and is used as a  A few well-known estates market a spectrum of wines, reds and whites of the classic varieties, sparkling wines, port style wines, and recently even estate-matured brandies. The district reaches north into Tulbagh (a separate area of origin) and Wellington and east toward Franschhoek (meaning `French corner'), home of the first French Huguenot settlers.


SOUTH AMERICAN WINES

By far, some of the biggest strides in wine have come from South America. Chile and Argentina have been legitimate producers for hundreds of years. The intense interest, especially from major French and American companies makes one excited about what the possibilities will be in the next decade. I feel that Argentina's terrain has a leg up on Chile in terms of producing exceptional quality wines. As long as the prices remain reasonable, these two countries are worth watching.

Argentina           
In terms of size and production, Argentina is the most important wine-producing country in South America. Only four other countries produce more wine. Of the 600,000 acres of vineyards, almost 50 per cent are planted with pink-skinned varieties, 30 per cent with white-skinned varieties, and just 20 per cent with red-skinned varieties. But the new wave of optimism is fast changing these proportions in favor of premium varieties and styles, particularly reds, which are now allowing Argentine wine producers to compete successfully internationally. Considerable investments in new vineyard areas and improved winemaking technology were made in the 1990s and the Argentine desire to export is now one of the most significant in the world of wine. The wine producing regions of Mendoza can roughly be divided into three areas, one main cluster in the north, one nearer the Andes to the west, and one further south, toward the middle of the province. The Zona Alta is often referred to as "Primera Zona", the First Zone. It is blessed with some of the most picturesque vineyards anywhere in the world. The snow-capped Andes and the geologically older and smaller, red colored, Cordón de la Plata act as a spectacular backdrop. The effect is made more striking by the fact that the area devoted to viticulture is flat as a pancake, perfect cycling country. The Zona Alta gently slopes away from its highest point (3,500 feet above sea level) near the Andes to 2,100 feet at its eastern-most point. The soil is made up of the moraine and waterborne deposits eroded from the Andes. On the surface it is a very pale tan, fine sandy, almost clay-like crust with negligible organic matter. It drains well and is ideal for high quality wine. Over 300 bodegas cultivate almost 50,000 acres of vineyards in this area. The Región del Norte and Región del Este are nearer to sea level than the Zona Alta (average 2,100-ft above sea level). Together they add up to 210,000 acres dedicated to viticulture. The Región del Norte has soils, which tend to be less porous and permeable than the other regions. This type of soil favors young fruity wines, both white and red. The Región del Este has an altogether more complicated soil structure. Some areas have deep upper layers with good water retention. Others have solid rock strata near the surface and have poor water retention. San Juan is Argentina's second largest area with 121,000 acres and La Rioja, home of the most exotic white in South America, Torrontés, is third with a mere 17,000 acres. All three have made dramatic improvements in quality since the early 1990s.

Chile           
Chile has well defined seasons situated near the 40th parallel. Because it is located in the southern hemisphere, the harvest season occurs between February and April. Nearly all of the wine is made in one region, the Maipo valley. It is high above the plains nestled in the Andes, which, like its counterpart in Argentina, Mendoza, receives 90% of its water from the mountains. In Chile, as in the rest of America, wine making began with the arrival of the Conquistadors. The Spanish introduced plants and animals unknown to the Chilean Indians who changed their daily eating habits as well as customs and traditional activities. Among the plants introduced were wheat, olives and grapevines. The Spanish conquistador Francisco de Aguirre became the first Chilean vintner, planting vines in the vicinity of La Serena in 1549. In 1831, there were 19,664,901 grapevine plants distributed from Coquimbo to Concepcion. The Atacama region, a great wine area in the 17th and 18th centuries, had lost importance and now two thirds of the planted surface were located in Concepcion and Cauquenes.  In 1851, there was a spectacular transformation of the Chilean wine making industry. Don Silvestre Ochagavia Echazarreta personally brought over from France cuttings of the most noble French wine making varieties to plant on his land in Talagante. From that time on, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon, Semillon and Riesling have made up the base of Chilean wine production. These varieties adapted splendidly to the Chilean climate and without a doubt, are the only pre-Phylloxera clones that exist in the world. A true legacy for mankind.  In 1979 the legal structure was drastically modified by the elimination of practically all snags. With this, the legislation changed from protectionist in nature too extremely liberal. This constant, economic turmoil forced many of the traditional, land-holding families to abandoned their vineyards. They were replaced by economic groups or corporations who, with greater economic potential began to invest in the modern technology needed for the production of outstanding wines. Foreign investors started to become interested in this faraway country. French, English and North American investments have begun to materialize, attesting to the bright future of Chilean wine. Because of this European influence, the principle grapes here are Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. Since Chile made its reputation on quaffable, affordable offerings, the quality has generally stayed in the value-oriented league. With big players from the US and Europe making sizable investments here, it won’t be long before we shall see a dramatic increase in quality, not to mention price.


AUSTRALIA'S WINES

Western Australia
The wine industry starts at the Southern tip of this large area and progresses along the coast to Perth. Here the Margaret River provides a temperate climate for many of Australia’s most delicate wines. Look for beautiful Rieslings and softly scented Chardonnays.

South Australia
Lying in the center of the country, this area houses arguably Australia’s finest wines, mostly centered around Adelaide and the Coonawarra, Barossa and Clare Valley districts. This area is a study in contrasts. From racy Rieslings and Chenin Blancs to the powerfully immense Syrahs and Cabernets, one could find all the wine needed to satisfy any taste.

New South Wales
On the Eastern seaboard and home to Sydney, this area boasts one of the oldest and unique areas in the country, the Hunter Valley. Hunter is known for it’s powerful Semillons which have been heralded as one of the longest lived white wines on Earth. A well-crafted Hunter Valley Semillon can last 50-75 years and keep singing. Powerful Syrahs and Cabernets are also crafted here.


NEW ZEALAND WINES

New Zealand is  made up of two islands approximately 450 miles in length each. If the country were in the Northern Hemisphere, it would be at about the same latitude as North Africa, generally considered too hot to grow grapes. But, because both islands are relatively long and narrow, the influence of the ocean helps keep the temperatures lower than would be the case in the Northern Hemisphere.

Winemaking came to New Zealand came quite late in the game, around the turn of the 20th Century. However, it wasn’t until the 1990s and into the 21st Century that their wines became popular.

In a very short period of time, New Zealand has become synonymous with exciting Sauvignon Blanc as no other area has ever been associated.

North Island
The two principal wine growing regions here are Auckland at the North end of the island and Hawks Bay on the Eastern coast just south of Gisborne.. Being closer to the equator, these areas are warmer than those in the South Island, but still cooler than areas at the same latitude in the Northern Hemisphere. Here bold Sauvignon Blancs and even Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot are gaining a foothold on the nation’s wine production.

South Island
This area’s wine production was dominated by a large coop, Montana, which made fairly innocuous wines at very inexpensive prices. That all changed when one small winery, Cloudy Bay in Marlborough at the Northern end of the island, began making Sauvignon Blanc and the world beat a path to its door. While some consider Marlborough the best area in New Zealand for Sauvignon  Blanc, it is hard to argue many outstanding examples from Hawks Bay. While Cabernet is grown here, it has a harder time ripening than those of the North Island. Pinot Noir is also becoming the darling of the island near Central Otago with some astonishing examples.


EASTERN EUROPE

With the fall of the iron curtain, Eastern Europe can now begin to upgrade and export many of its fine wines, which have heretofore been unavailable to the Western world. It has long been known that many areas in Hungary and Romania are potential vineyard sites, which could make wine to rival the finest in Europe.


THE WORLD'S WINE REGIONS AT A GLANCE

The following is the most exhaustive comparison of the worlds major grape growing countries and their respective major areas ever compiled. Every measure has been taken to assure accuracy, but bear in mind that these numbers change (some drastically) from one year to the next. This is especially true with the total case production figures. We have tried to present an average number of cases produced based on the average yields or, in some cases, the yield dictated by law. The vintage, however, can produce from one half to two times the average number of cases.

Certain areas become very interesting to the public and trade and thus attract new wineries. Some grapes become popular and vintners switch from one to another. Every attempt has been made to present the most accurate data possible.

This compilation was meant to be a user-friendly guide for those of you who are interested in the size and scope of the wine industry in each major area. It allows you to compare wine statistics for different countries and regions. If you are in the wine trade, press or just an interested consumer, we hope you find this research informative and interesting. Please e-mail us with your comments and suggestions. Please note that the total number of cases produced for reds, whites, dessert and sparkling wines in each area do not add up to the total cases produced for that area because some wine is distilled or sold in bulk to other areas or out of the country. Every effort was made to be as accurate as possible.

Argentina
Grapes First Planted: 1550
Main Wine Regions: Mendoza
Total Acres:  617,000
Average Yield: 3.75 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  126,000,0000
Wine/Grape Producers:  5,000
Main Red Grapes:  Malbec
Main White Grapes:  Trebbiano, Muscat, Torrontes
Total Red Cases: 30,000,000
Total White Cases: 50,000,000
Total Sparkling Wine Cases: 10,000,000

Australia
Grapes First Planted: 1800
Main Wine Regions: South Austraila, New South Wales, Western Australia, Victoria
Total Acres:  250,000
Average Yield: 6.00 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  95,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  1,100
Main Red Grapes:  Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon
Main White Grapes:  Chardonnay, Semillon
Total Red Cases: 40,000,000
Total White Cases: 40,000,000

Austria
Grapes First Planted: 500 BC
Main Wine Regions: Wachau, Bergunland, Kremstal, Kamptal, Steria
Total Acres:  121000
Average Yield: 2.62 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  19,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  36,000
Main Red Grapes:  Zweigelt
Main White Grapes:  Gruner Veltliner, Riesling
Total Red Cases: 6,000,000
Total White Cases: 12,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 1,000,000

Chile
Grapes First Planted: 1500
Main Wine Regions: Maipo
Total Acres:  360,000
Average Yield: 3.7 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  80,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  2000
Main Red Grapes:  Pais, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
Main White Grapes:  Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
Total Red Cases: 50,000,000
Total White Cases: 30,000000

France
Grapes First Planted: 650 BC
Main Wine Regions: Alsace, Bordeaux, Burgundy, Rhone, Champagne, Loire, Bandol, Landes, Languedoc, Provence, Jura
Total Acres:  3,000,000
Average Yield: 4.26 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  668,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  600,000
Main Red Grapes:  Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Grenache, Carignan
Main White Grapes:  Ugni Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay
Total Red Cases: 440,000,000
Total White Cases: 195,000,000
Total Sparkling Wine Cases: 30,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 3,000,000

Alsace
Grapes First Planted: 700 AD
Main Wine Regions: Ribeauvillé, Riquewihr, Thann, Turkheim
Total Acres:  30,000
Average Yield: 5.56 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  10,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  2,000
Main Red Grapes:  Pinot Noir
Main White Grapes:  Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, Tokay Pinot Gris
Total Red Cases: 500,000
Total White Cases: 9,500,000
Total Dessert Cases: 2,000

Bordeaux
Grapes First Planted: 700 BC
Main Wine Regions: Pauillac, Margaux, St Julien, St Estephe, Pessac Leognan, Pomerol, St Emilion, Sauternes, Haut Medoc, Cote du Bordeaux, Lalande de Pomerol, Graves, Entre-Deux-Mers, Moulis, Listrac, Barsac, Bourg, Blaye
Total Acres:  250,000
Average Yield: 4.32 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  64,800,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  25,000
Main Red Grapes: Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Malbec
Main White Grapes: Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Ugni Blanc
Total Red Cases: 48,000,000
Total White Cases: 15,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 1,800,000

Burgundy
Grapes First Planted: 100 AD
Main Wine Regions: Gevrey Chambertin, Morey St Denis, Vosne Romanee, Aloxe Corton, Puligny Montrachet, Chassagne Montrachet, Meursault, Beaujolais, Macon, Santenay, Cote de Beaune, Cote de Nuit, Pernand Vergelesses
Total Acres:  100,000
Average Yield: 3.67 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  22,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  10,000
Main Red Grapes:  Pinot Noir, Gamay
Main White Grapes:  Chardonnay
Total Red Cases: 13,000,000
Total White Cases: 8,000,000
Total Sparkling Wine Cases: 1,000,000

Champagne
Grapes First Planted: 900 AD
Main Wine Regions: Marne, Bouzy, Ay, Epernay
Total Acres:  68,000
Average Yield: 3.43 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  14000000
Wine/Grape Producers:  19,000
Main Red Grapes:  Pinot Munier, Pinot Noir
Main White Grapes:  Chardonnay
Total Sparkling Wine Cases: 14,000,000

Loire
Grapes First Planted: 100 AD
Main Wine Regions: Muscadet, Vouvray, Sammur, Bourgueil, Chinon, Anjou, Tavel, Sancerre, Pouilly Fume
Total Acres:  200,000
Average Yield: 3.34 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  40,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  12,000
Main Red Grapes:  Cabernet Franc, Pinot Noir
Main White Grapes:  Chenin Blanc, Melon de Bourgogne, Sauignon Blanc
Total Red Cases: 5,000,000
Total White Cases: 34,000,000
Total Sparkling Wine Cases: 1,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 20,000

Rhone
Grapes First Planted: 100 AD
Main Wine Regions: Chateauneuf du Pape, Cote Rotie, Hermitage, Cornas, St Joseph, Condrieu, Cotes du Rhone, Cotes du Rhone Villages
Total Acres:  150,000
Average Yield: 2.56 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  23,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  8,000
Main Red Grapes:  Grenache, Syrah, Mouvedre, Cinsault
Main White Grapes:  Marsanne, Roussane, Viognier
Total Red Cases: 4,000,000
Total White Cases: 19,000,000

Germany
Grapes First Planted: 100 AD
Main Wine Regions: Rheingau, Mosel, Pfalz, Rheinhessen, Baden, Nahe, Franken
Total Acres:  250,000
Average Yield: 7.33 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  110,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  90,000
Main Red Grapes:  Pinot Noir
Main White Grapes:  Riesling, Muller-Thurgau
Total Red Cases: 15,000,000
Total White Cases: 70,000,000
Total Sparkling Wine Cases: 23,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 2,000,000

Mosel-Saar-Ruwer
Grapes First Planted: 100 AD
Total Acres:  30,000
Average Yield: 6.83 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  12,300,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  6,500
Main Red Grapes:  Pinot Noir
Main White Grapes:  Riesling, Muller-Thurgau
Total Red Cases: 300,000
Total White Cases: 12,000,000

Italy
Grapes First Planted: 2000 BC
Main Wine Regions: Piedmont, Tuscany, Trentino, Friuli, Veneto, Umbria, Sardegna, Sicily, Calabria, Apulia, Lazio, Marches Basilicata, Abruzzo
Total Acres:  2,500,000
Average Yield: 3.83 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  530,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  1,200,000
Main Red Grapes:  Barbera, Sangiovese, Nero d’Avola
Main White Grapes:  Trebbiano, Arneis, Cortese, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Blanc
Total Red Cases: 400,000,000
Total White Cases: 120,000,000
Total Sparkling Wine Cases: 2,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 8,000,000

Friuli
Grapes First Planted: 2000 BC
Main Wine Regions: Collio, Colli Orientalli
Total Acres:  50,000
Average Yield: 4 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  12,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  30,000
Main Red Grapes:  Pinot Noir, Merlot, Cabernet Franc
Main White Grapes:  Tocai, Malvasia, Chardonnay, Gewuztraminer, Riesling, Pinot Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc
Total Red Cases: 5,000,000
Total White Cases: 7,000,000

Piedmont
Grapes First Planted: 2000 BC
Main Wine Regions: Barolo, Barberesco, Asti, Roero, Alba, Gattinara, Gavi, Ghemme
Total Acres:  180,000
Average Yield: 3.8 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  41,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  55,000
Main Red Grapes:  Nebbiolo, Barbera
Main White Grapes:  Arneis, Cortese
Total Red Cases: 24,000,000
Total White Cases: 6,000,000
Total Sparkling Wine Cases: 11,000,000

Sardinia
Grapes First Planted: 2000 BC
Total Acres:  100,000
Average Yield: 2.7 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  16,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  60,000
Main Red Grapes:  Monica, Cannonau
Main White Grapes:  Vermentino, Malvasia, Moscato
Total Red Cases: 6,000,000
Total White Cases: 10,000,000

Sicily
Grapes First Planted: 2000 BC
Main Wine Regions:
Total Acres:  500,000
Average Yield: 3.67 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  110,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  200,000
Main Red Grapes:  Nero d' Avola
Main White Grapes:  Malvasia, Moscato
Total Red Cases: 20,000,000
Total White Cases: 40,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 50,000,000

Trentino
Grapes First Planted: 2000 BC
Total Acres:  33,000
Average Yield: 6.57 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  13,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  60000
Main Red Grapes:  Teroldego, Pinot Noir, Merlot, Cabernet Franc
Main White Grapes:  Pinot Blanc, Chardonnay
Total Red Cases: 5,000,000
Total White Cases: 8,000,000

Tuscany
Grapes First Planted: 2000 BC
Main Wine Regions: Chianti, Vino Noble di Montalpuciano, Brunello di Montalcino, Carmignano, Vernaccia di San Gimignano, Colli Senesi, Ruffino, Montalbano
Total Acres:  250,000
Average Yield: 2.67 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  40,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  10,000
Main Red Grapes:  Sangiovese
Main White Grapes:  Trebbiano
Total Red Cases: 30,000,000
Total White Cases: 10,000,000
Total Dessert Cases:  1.000.000

Umbria
Grapes First Planted: 2000 BC
Main Wine Regions: Torgiano, Orvieto
Total Acres:  50,000
Average Yield: 4 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  12,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  20,000
Main Red Grapes:  Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sagrantino
Main White Grapes:  Trebbiano
Total Red Cases: 3,000,000
Total White Cases: 8,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 1,000,000

Veneto
Grapes First Planted: 2000 BC
Main Wine Regions: Valpolicella, Bardolino, Soave, Amarone, Custosa
Total Acres:  230,000
Average Yield: 6.52 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  90,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  60,000
Main Red Grapes:  Corvina, Molinara, Rondinella
Main White Grapes:  Trebbiano, Pinot Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio
Total Red Cases: 40,000,000
Total White Cases: 40,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 10,000,000

New Zealand
Grapes First Planted: 1800
Main Wine Regions: Hawks Bay, Marlborough, Gisbourn, Aukland, Martinborough
Total Acres:  22,000
Average Yield: 5.3 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  7,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  300
Main Red Grapes:  Pinot, Merlot
Main White Grapes:  Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay
Total Red Cases: 2,000,000
Total White Cases: 5,000,000

Portugal
Grapes First Planted: 100 AD
Main Wine Regions: Douro, Vinho Verde, Dao
Total Acres:  600,000
Average Yield: 2.64 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  95,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  180,000
Total Red Cases: 35,000,000
Total White Cases: 25,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 35,000,000

Douro
Grapes First Planted: 100 AD
Total Acres:  100,000
Average Yield: 6.67 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  40,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  200
Main Red Grapes:  Tinto Cao, Tinta Amarela, Touriga Nacional
Total White Cases: 5,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 35,000,000

South Africa
Grapes First Planted: 1650
Main Wine Regions: Swartland, Paarl, Stellenbosch
Total Acres:  275,000
Average Yield: 4.85 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  80,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  5,000
Main Red Grapes:  Cabernet Sauvignon
Main White Grapes:  Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
Total Red Cases: 20,000,000
Total White Cases: 30,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 30,000,000

Spain
Grapes First Planted: 4000 BC
Main Wine Regions: Rioja, Ribera del Duero, Priorat, Cataluna, Sherry
Total Acres:  3,000,000
Average Yield: 2.43 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  438,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  800,000
Main Red Grapes:  Tempranillo, Garnacha, Carignane, Monastrel
Main White Grapes:  Palomino, Viura, Parellada, Chardonnay
Total Red Cases: 220,000,000
Total White Cases: 110,000,000
Total Sparkling Wine Cases: 100,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 8,000,000

Rioja
Grapes First Planted: 100 AD
Main Wine Regions: Alta, Alavesa, Baja
Total Acres:  120000
Average Yield: 4.86 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  35,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  14,000
Main Red Grapes:  Tempranillo, Garnacha, Carignan
Main White Grapes:  Viura, Malvasia
Total Red Cases: 25,000,000
Total White Cases: 10,000,000

Sherry
Grapes First Planted: 1100 BC
Main Wine Regions: Jerez de la Frontera, Sanlucar de Barameda
Total Acres:  40,000
Average Yield: 333 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  8,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  5000
Main White Grapes:  Palomino, Pedro Ximenez
Total White Cases: 8,000,000

United States
Grapes First Planted: 1700
Main Wine Regions: California, Washington, Oregon, New York, Texas, Virginia
Total Acres:  720,000
Average Yield: 7.87 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  340,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  3,000
Main Red Grapes:  Cabernet Sauvignon, Zinfandel, Grenache
Main White Grapes:  Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
Total Red Cases: 100,000,000
Total White Cases: 160,000,000
Total Sparkling Wine Cases: 20,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 3,000,000

California
Grapes First Planted: 1850
Main Wine Regions: Napa, Sonoma, Santa Barbara, Monterey, Santa Cruz, Mendocino, Sierra Foothills, Temecula
Total Acres:  640,000
Average Yield: 7.81 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  300,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  1000
Main Red Grapes:  Cabernet Sauvignon, Zinfandel, Grenache
Main White Grapes:  Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
Total Red Cases: 120,000,000
Total White Cases: 140,000,000
Total Sparkling Wine Cases: 15,000,000
Total Dessert Cases: 2,000,000

Oregon
Grapes First Planted: 1860
Main Wine Regions: Willamette
Total Acres:  8,000
Average Yield: 4.17 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  2,000,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  100
Main Red Grapes:  Pinot Noir
Main White Grapes:  Pinot Gris
Total Red Cases: 1,200,000
Total White Cases: 800,000

Washington
Grapes First Planted: 1930
Main Wine Regions: Columbia Valley,
Total Acres:  16,500
Average Yield: 4.75 Tons/Acre
Total Cases Produced:  4,700,000
Wine/Grape Producers:  100
Main Red Grapes:  Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
Main White Grapes:  Riesling, Chardonnay
Total Red Cases: 2,500,000
Total White Cases: 2,200,000





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